Type 1 Diabetes & eye complication


June 3rd, 2021

Type 1 Diabetes & eye complication

1. How Type 1 diabetes can cause complications in my vision?

People with Type 1 Diabetes are more at risk to develop an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy which can affect their eyesight.
If your blood glucose level is consistently high, it can seriously damage your blood vessels. When it affects the blood vessels in your eyes it impacts the blood supply to the retina (the part of the eye that makes us able to see).
When these blood vessels are damaged it means the retina can’t get the blood it needs and so it can’t work properly. This means you won’t be able to see properly and you may become blind.
There are things that can be done to prevent vision loss, if the signs are caught early enough. The most important one is to ensure to keep your blood glucose level in the target range to avoid long-term complications. Yearly eye check can help your doctor detect eye problems early, before it leads to blindness.

2. What eye problems can happen?

  • A cataract, which is a thickening and clouding of the lens of the eye which blurs vision or makes it hard to see at night
  • Glaucoma, which is when the pressure builds up inside the eye which can decrease the blood flow to the retina and optic nerve, causing damage. Over time, if left untreated, glaucoma can lead to vision loss
  • Diabetic retinopathy, which involves changes in the retina due to damage or growth problems in the small blood vessels of the retina.

3. Catching eye problems early

The best way to see if you have eye problems is to have an eye doctor check your eyes. You can have eye damage even if your vision is fine. It has nothing to do with needing glasses.
It’s important to detect eye disease early and do something about it to prevent blindness. For that, you should have an eye screening organised every year. This is different to eye test by opticians where they help people with fitting glasses or contact lenses.
What is an eye screening for people with diabetes? An eye doctor will take a photo of each eye to look for any changes to your retina and any signs of retinopathy.
If it’s caught early, there are treatments that can be done to prevent vision loss. Your doctor can discuss this with you as long as you give him the results of your annual eye screening.

4. Tips to reduce the risk of eye problems

  • Always check your blood glucose level
  • Get your eyes screened every year
  • Spot changes to your eyesight including blurred vision (especially at night), shapes floating in your vision, sensitivity to light
  • Follow the healthy eating guidelines and avoid foods that contain bad carbohydrates like sugary drinks, desserts, and junk food like potato chips.
  • Try to exercice 30 min per day


HelloType1 content is based on published, internationally recognised guidelines and then reviewed by local experts to ensure it fits local context. The translation is based on simplified English language to ensure it conveys the safest and clearest possible message in regional languages. Basic insulin and blood glucose testing access is still an issue in the South-East Asia region and our chief aim is to address this. HelloType1 content is not intended to replace the advice of individual healthcare professionals but as a collaborative tool to help them improve the outcomes of disadvantaged people with Type 1 Diabetes in the region.

HelloType1 content is curated for the topics using information only taken from accredited sources such as the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) and the International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD).

This content is then reviewed and adapted by a panel consisting of healthcare experts (e.g. endocrinologist, nutritionist, diabetes nurse, psychologist) and members of the South-East Asia T1D communities, helping ensure the information is appropriate in a local context.

Writers of HelloType1 content:
Anne-Charlotte Ficheroulle, Pharmacist, Digital Innovation Manager at A4D
Charlotte O’Brian Gore, Research assistant ImmunoEngineering, King’s College. UK

Content Reviewers – healthcare professionals:
Dr. May Ng, Paediatric Endocrinologist, Chief Medical Advisor A4D, UK
Dr. Yeow Toh Peng, Endocrinologist, Malaysia
Dr Jaturat Petchkul, Paediatric Endocrinologist, Thailand
Dianna Culbertson, Physician Assistant T1D care, US
Prof Dr Malene Iv, Endocrinologist, Kantha Bopha Hospital, Cambodia
Steffen Tange, Consultant Psychology, Denmark
Soe Nyi Nyi, Nutritionist, Myanmar
Lucas Lim, Dietician, Malaysia

Content Reviewers – people with Type 1 Diabetes:
Jerry Gore, Co-Founder A4D, Mountaineer, UK
Diana Maynard, T1D advocate, UK
Emelyne Carmen Ho, College Student, Malaysia
Molly Seal, College Student, UK

Content Reviewers – parents with T1D child:
Samantha Seal, Teacher, Thailand
Kim Than, Deputy Country Director – Plan International, Cambodia





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